B. Lanetsky, V. Luk’yanchuk, I. Nikolaev, Kharkiv National Air Force University
The problem issues are analyzed and the ways of the development of anti-aircraft missile weapons (AAMW) of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine are determined in conditions of financial, economic and other resource constraints.
Proposals for providing the required level of combat readiness of the AAMW inventory in the medium term are given. It is shown that the development of anti-aircraft missile weapons in Ukraine should be carried out on the basis of a systematic approach to solving this problem within the framework of a long-term target program, which should include a balanced system of measures for the organization and implementation of research and development work for the creation and modernization of existing anti-aircraft missile weaponry. The main steps to be taken to ensure the further development of AAMW for the period up to 2025 are given.
The expansion of the nomenclature and the development of methods of combat use of airborne threats (ATs) have led to an increase in requirements for air defense capabilities (air defense). The experience of local wars and armed conflicts over the past decade has shown that effective air defense of important state facilities and troops should be based on modern air defense missile complexes (ADMCs) capable also of tactical missile defense .
But the combat capabilities of the ADMCs, which are used in the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, do not fully meet the modern requirements for combating modern and promising ATs. The most acute problem is the physical and moral aging of the existing ADMC fleet, which jeopardizes the ability of the Air Forces of Ukraine's Armed Forces to provide reliable air defense of important state facilities and troops .
At present, the Air Force of the Armed Forces of Ukraine operates automated control systems (ASCs) "Baikal-1" ("Baikal"), "Senezh M" and "Polyana-D4" and the air defense missile systems (ADMS) C-300PT, С-300PS and "Buk-М1" using the scheduled maintenance system. The scheduled duration of operation of armaments and military equipment (AME) ranges from 25 to 31 years. Currently, the average repair has been done to about 50% of ADMS S-300P, to 20% of ADMC "Buk-M1" and to some products from the composition of these MRKs.
The surface-to-air missiles (SAM) 5В55К (Р) for ADMS S-300P were made in 1985-1997. About 70% of these SAMs have exhausted their terms, and about 10% of them are disabled and need factory repairs. At the same time, the number of combat ready products 5V55K (P) will be reduced, starting from 2018 in connection with the expiration of the intended life (storage) of 30 years.
SAM 9M38M1 (9M38) for the "Buk-M1" were manufactured in 1982-1991. 65% of the SAM 9M38M1 exhausted their intended service life (resource) and require works and factory repairs to continue their assigned indicators, and 35% are disabled. As a result of works on continuation of service life in 2017, the intended shelf life of 9M38M1 and 9M38 products in the container is set to 35 years .
Another problematic issue is the provision of the AAMW repairs with the necessary amount of spare parts that are not produced by Ukrainian enterprises .
The development and production of scarce components to make spare parts and to maintain the operation of ADMC is at an initial stage for enterprises of Ukraine. At present, work on the replacement of a number of ultrahigh-frequency devices, component base of memory devices and other products for the S-300P and Buk-M1 ADMCs has been carried out to maintain the combat-ready state of the combat equipment of the S-300PS (PT). It should be noted that in the near future, the repair and subsequent operation of the S-300PC (PT) and "Buk-M1" can only be carried out in case of timely execution of works on the development and production of components by domestic enterprises.
In order to ensure the further operation of repaired ADMCs with minimal cost, it is expedient to transfer ground-based military equipment to the maintenance by technical condition (MTC) with the introduction of the service method of maintenance and repair (SMMR) . This will allow to operate the ADMC until it reaches the limit of service life without carrying out factory repairs in case of appropriate provision of such operation with the necessary SPTA.
The most rational options for solving the problem of restoring and maintaining the combat status of the inventory are:
- for the S-300P – the manufacturer's medium repair (with the capacity of three or more ADMCs per year, and the subsequent transfer to the MTC and the development of the service methods for SMMR;
- for the Buk-M1 ADMC – to carry out factory medium repairs with the capacity of two or more ADMCs per year, and their subsequent transfer to the MTC and the development of service methods for SMMR.
The implementation of the recommendations will allow to provide the required level of combat readiness of the existing inventory of ADMCs of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces in the medium-term.
The projected estimate of the quantitative composition of the AAMW of the Air Force of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (even taking into account repairs) indicates that in the long run, due to the achievement of the maximum period of service, the quantity of the ADMC S-300PS (PT) and "Buk-M1" will shrink starting from 2025 .
In order to update the AAMW in the long-term perspective, it is necessary to add modern ADMC specimens of domestic development and production, or to purchase modern foreign ADMCs. It should be noted that the purchase of a certain number of AAMWs abroad will not allow a radical solution to the problem of the rearmament of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, since foreign ADMCs are of high cost, and the AAMW market is too fragmented on a political footing. Therefore, the main means of rearmament of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine to modern AAMW in the long run still is the development and production of prospective ADMC (ADMS) by enterprises of "Ukroboronprom" with the involvement, if necessary, of foreign partners of Ukraine .
Development of AAMW in conditions of resource constraints is advisable to achieve by systematic and phased solving of the following tasks [8–12]:
- determination of the role and place of existing and perspective prototypes of AAMW in solving the air defense tasks in the predicted conditions of conducting air defense operation;
- assessment of the contribution of specific type of ADMC or a separate group of complexes (systems) in the effectiveness of the AAMW system of anti-aircraft missile troops;
- substantiation of the outline and operationaltactical requirements (OTR) to a promising system of AAMW of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, its firepower, its intelligence and command&control subsystems;
- creation of a scientific and technical expertise, based on the latest achievements of scientific and technological progress, aimed at modernizing the existing and developing promising specimens (complexes, systems) of AAMW.
To address these challenges, the following steps have been planned and are being implemented at present:
- completion and implementation of research and development work (R&D) aimed at creating a scientific and technological expertise in the field of rocket science, radar, computer science, computer technology and other technologies;
- monitoring of the AAMW market with the aim of purchasing a limited number of modern ADMCs;
- creation of cooperation of enterprises of defense industrial complex, scientific groups, technological and experimental base, which will provide modernization, development and production of domestic models of anti-aircraft missile weaponry;
- modernization of the existing ADMC inventory in order to increase the performance characteristics and the combat capability of the ADMC by improving and replacing new separate functional systems, components, combat and technical means, produced using new technologies and achieved levels of scientific research and development carried out within the framework of research and development (R&D).
- clarification of the concept of the development of the AAMW of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the basis of the experience of modern hybrid wars and trends in the development of ATs in advanced countries;
- R&D works in the following directions:
- substantiation of the requirements and the development of proposals for the procurement, acceptance of weapons and military products in the existing system of operation and maintenance of the ADMCs of foreign produce;
- substantiation of rational ways to combat small unmanned aerial vehicles;
- development of a mobile multifunctional radar capable of detecting and tracking targets and missiles using active phase antenna array (PAR);
- development of short-range missiles for the defeat of cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, highprecision weapons, tactical aircraft and helicopters at distances of up to 20 km and altitudes of up to 10 km;
In order to ensure the development of anti-aircraft missile defense armaments in Ukraine, it is necessary:
- to urgently create special-purpose design bureaus for the development of small, medium and long-range ADMCs, SAMs for them, command&control facilities, specialized multifunctional radars based on passive and active PARs and other components and elements, to begin work on creation of necessary technologies, research and testing facilities;
- to restore or expand the necessary production capacities in the field of high-tech electronics, ultra high frequency devices, new gunpowder, rocket fuels and explosives, special materials for missiles and launchers;
- to ensure the efficient use and expansion of the scientific and technological expertise in the field of "breakthrough" technologies in order to accelerate the development of promising prototypes of AAMW, allowing to create a new material base for further rearmament of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine;
- to ensure the creation of a testing ground complex equipped with modern means for measurement and testing;
- to ensure further development of the system of military repair, operation and restoration of AAMW with the involvement of industrial enterprises;
- to ensure transparency of distribution and spending of material and financial resources by years of the planned period in support of a combat readiness and modernization of existing AAMW, development and production of promising specimens of AAMW and their constituent parts/
In the paper, based on the analysis of the current state of the AAMW of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, recommendations are made to provide the required level of combat readiness of Air Forces in the medium term perspective and the main ways are identified for developing the AAMW of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine for the period up to 2025.
Implementation of the proposed measures to replace the high deficit products with modern analogues of domestic production, necessary repair works and transfer the ADMC to maintenance by technical condition, introduction of service methods of maintenance and repair works to prolong the assigned service live of surface-to-air missiles using factory repairs, as necessary, and upgrading the inventory with modern prototypes of ADMCs of domestic or foreign produce will provide the required level of combat readiness of the ADMC inventory till 2025 and for the long-term perspective. Implementation of these measures is possible provided that they are timely funded and given the necessary scientific and technical support.
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Science and Technology of the Air Force of Ukraine, 2018, № 2(31), 2223-456X ; 2518-1505